In theory, regulators concerned about inequality will deviate from efficient two-part tariffs, charging lower-than-efficient fixed monthly fees and higher-than-efficient per-kilowatt-hour prices. To quantify that relationship, we develop a measure of the redistributive extent of utility tariffs: the "electric Gini." Utilities with higher electric Ginis shift more costs from households using relatively little electricity to households using more. In practice, US utilities whose ratepayers have more unequal incomes have higher electric Ginis. But electricity demand is only loosely correlated with income, which means that electricity prices are an indirect and ineffective policy for countering income inequality.
Levinson, Arik, and Emilson Silva.
"The Electric Gini: Income Redistribution through Energy Prices."
American Economic Journal: Economic Policy,
Personal Income, Wealth, and Their Distributions
Production, Pricing, and Market Structure; Size Distribution of Firms
Industry Studies: Utilities and Transportation: Government Policy