Gendered Effects on Wages, Employment, and Prices
Saturday, Jan. 4, 2020 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM (PDT)
- Chair: Jennifer Doleac, Texas A&M University
Why Do Women Earn Less Than Men? Evidence from Bus and Train Operations
AbstractFemale workers earn $0.89 for each male-worker dollar even in a unionized workplace where tasks, wages, and promotion schedules are identical for men and women by design. We use administrative time card data on bus and train operators to show that the earnings gap can be explained by female operators taking, on average, 1.5 fewer hours of overtime and 1.3 more hours of unpaid time-off per week than male operators. Female operators, especially those who have dependents, pursue schedule conventionality, predictability, and controllability more than male operators. Analyzing two policy changes, we demonstrate that while reducing schedule controllability can reduce the earnings gap, it can also make workers—particularly female workers—worse off.
Salary Disclosure and Hiring: Field Experimental Evidence from a Two-Sided Audit Study
AbstractHow does banning employers from seeking applicants' wage histories affect employment and salary offers? We implement a field experimental design we call a two-sided audit study, in which recruiters evaluate job applications with randomized characteristics under randomly assigned salary disclosure conditions. The experiment mimics laws passed in Massachusetts, California, New York City, and Chicago banning these questions. When disclosure is banned, recruiters in our experiment extend candidates lower overall salary offers. We find mixed results about the effect of disclosures on the gender wage gap. Disclosure increases male salaries more than female salaries, although this may only affect workers who are hired. Disclosure also improves female callback rates, without affecting men's. The overall effect of bans on the gender wage gap hinges on how we assess greater female representation.
Gender Price Gaps and Competition: Evidence from a Correspondence Study
AbstractI study the extent and structure of gender-based price discrimination in service markets by implementing a large-scale field experiment in the US auto repair industry. Women receive price quotes that are 1.9 percent (9 dollars) higher than men. These differences disappear once women signal low search costs, suggesting statistical rather than taste-based discrimination. Price requests that appear to come from high-income households raise price quotes for men but not women, also eliminating the gender gap. The price gap between genders falls with the number of nearby repair shops, suggesting that market competition alleviates discrimination.
- J7 - Labor Discrimination
- J1 - Demographic Economics